- About Hevo
- Hevo Features
- Hevo System Architecture
- Core Concepts
- Free Trials
- Regulatory Compliance
- Scheduling a Demo
- Hevo Support
- General FAQs
- Getting Started
- Creating an Account in Hevo
- Connecting Through SSH
- Connecting Through Reverse SSH Tunnel
- Using Google Account Authentication
- How Hevo Authenticates Sources and Destinations using OAuth
- Reauthorizing an OAuth Account
- Familiarizing with the UI
- Creating your First Pipeline
- Data Loss Prevention and Recovery
- Data Ingestion
- Types of Data Synchronization
- Ingestion Modes and Query Modes for Database Sources
- Ingestion and Loading Frequency
- Data Ingestion Statuses
- Deferred Data Ingestion
- Handling of Primary Keys
- Handling of Updates
- Handling of Deletes
- Hevo-generated Metadata
- Data Loading
- Loading Data in a Database Destination
- Loading Data to a Data Warehouse
- Optimizing Data Loading for a Destination Warehouse
- Manually Triggering the Loading of Events
- Scheduling Data Load for a Destination
- Loading Events in Batches
- Data Loading Statuses
- Data Spike Alerts
- Name Sanitization
- Table and Column Name Compression
- Parsing Nested JSON Fields in Events
- Data Flow in a Pipeline
- Familiarizing with the Pipelines UI
Working with Pipelines
- Best Practices for Creating Database Pipelines
- Creating a Pipeline
- Connectivity Check for RDBMS Sources
- Scheduling a Pipeline
- Modifying a Pipeline
- Prioritizing a Pipeline
- Viewing Pipeline Progress
- Pausing and Deleting a Pipeline
- Log-based Pipelines
- Troubleshooting Data Replication Errors
- Managing Objects in Pipelines
Python Code-Based Transformations
- Supported Python Modules and Functions
Transformation Methods in the Event Class
- Create an Event
- Retrieve the Event Name
- Rename an Event
- Retrieve the Properties of an Event
- Modify the Properties for an Event
- Fetch the Primary Keys of an Event
- Modify the Primary Keys of an Event
- Fetch the Data Type of a Field
- Check if the Field is a String
- Check if the Field is a Number
- Check if the Field is Boolean
- Check if the Field is a Date
- Check if the Field is a Time Value
- Check if the Field is a Timestamp
- Convert Date String to Required Format
- Convert Date to Required Format
- Convert Datetime String to Required Format
- Convert Epoch Time to a Date
- Convert Epoch Time to a Datetime
- Convert Epoch to Required Format
- Convert Epoch to a Time
- Get Time Difference
- Parse Date String to Date
- Parse Date String to Datetime Format
- Parse Date String to Time
- Examples of Python Code-based Transformations
Drag and Drop Transformations
- Special Keywords
Transformation Blocks and Properties
- Add a Field
- Change Datetime Field Values
- Change Field Values
- Drop Events
- Drop Fields
- Find & Replace
- Flatten JSON
- Format Date to String
- Format Number to String
- Hash Fields
- Mask Fields
- Modify Text Casing
- Parse Date from String
- Parse JSON from String
- Parse Number from String
- Rename Events
- Rename Fields
- Round-off Decimal Fields
- Split Fields
- Examples of Drag and Drop Transformations
- Effect of Transformations on the Destination Table Structure
- Transformation Reference
- Transformation FAQs
- Python Code-Based Transformations
- Using Schema Mapper
- Mapping Statuses
- Auto Mapping Event Types
- Manually Mapping Event Types
- Modifying Schema Mapping for Event Types
- Schema Mapper Actions
- Fixing Unmapped Fields
- Resolving Incompatible Schema Mappings
- Resizing String Columns in the Destination
- Schema Mapper Compatibility Table
- Limits on the Number of Destination Columns
- File Log
- Troubleshooting Failed Events in a Pipeline
- Mismatch in Events Count in Source and Destination
- Activity Log
- Can multiple Sources connect to one Destination?
- What happens if I re-create a deleted Pipeline?
- Why is there a delay in my Pipeline?
- Can I change the Destination post-Pipeline creation?
- Why is my billable Events high with Delta Timestamp mode?
- Can I drop multiple Destination tables in a Pipeline at once?
- How does Run Now affect scheduled ingestion frequency?
- Will pausing some objects increase the ingestion speed?
- Can I see the historical load progress?
- Why is my Historical Load Progress still at 0%?
- Why is historical data not getting ingested?
- How do I set a field as a primary key?
- How do I ensure that records are loaded only once?
- Events Usage
- Free Sources
Databases and File Systems
- Data Warehouses
- Connecting to a Local Database
- Amazon DocumentDB
- Amazon DynamoDB
- Generic MongoDB
- MongoDB Atlas
- Support for Multiple Data Types for the _id Field
- Example - Merge Collections Feature
Errors During Pipeline Creation
- Error 1001 - Incorrect credentials
- Error 1005 - Connection timeout
- Error 1006 - Invalid database hostname
- Error 1007 - SSH connection failed
- Error 1008 - Database unreachable
- Error 1011 - Insufficient access
- Error 1028 - Primary/Master host needed for OpLog
- Error 1029 - Version not supported for Change Streams
- SSL 1009 - SSL Connection Failure
- Troubleshooting MongoDB Change Streams Connection
- Troubleshooting MongoDB OpLog Connection
- Errors During Pipeline Creation
- Amazon RDS SQL Server
- Azure SQL Server
- Google Cloud SQL Server
- Generic SQL Server
- Troubleshooting SQL Server
- SQL Server FAQs
- Amazon Aurora MySQL
- Amazon RDS MySQL
- Azure MySQL
- Google Cloud MySQL
- Generic MySQL
- MariaDB MySQL
Errors During Pipeline Creation
- Error 1003 - Connection to host failed
- Error 1006 - Connection to host failed
- Error 1007 - SSH connection failed
- Error 1011 - Access denied
- Error 1012 - Replication access denied
- Error 1017 - Connection to host failed
- Error 1026 - Failed to connect to database
- Error 1027 - Unsupported BinLog format
- Failed to determine binlog filename/position
- Schema 'xyz' is not tracked via bin logs
- Errors Post-Pipeline Creation
- Errors During Pipeline Creation
- MySQL FAQs
- Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL
- Amazon RDS PostgreSQL
- Azure PostgreSQL
- Google Cloud PostgreSQL
- Generic PostgreSQL
- Heroku PostgreSQL
Errors during Pipeline creation
- Error 1003 - Authentication failure
- Error 1006 - Connection settings errors
- Error 1011 - Access role issue for logical replication
- Error 1012 - Access role issue for logical replication
- Error 1014 - Database does not exist
- Error 1017 - Connection settings errors
- Error 1023 - No pg_hba.conf entry
- Error 1024 - Number of requested standby connections
- Errors Post-Pipeline Creation
- Errors during Pipeline creation
- PostgreSQL FAQs
- Troubleshooting Database Sources
- Amazon S3
- Azure Blob Storage
- FTP / SFTP
- Google Cloud Storage (GCS)
- Google Drive
- Google Sheets
- Android SDK
- Writing JSONPath Expressions
REST API FAQs
- Why does my REST API token keep changing?
- Can I use a bearer authorization token for authentication?
- Does Hevo’s REST API support API chaining?
- What is the maximum payload size returned by a REST API?
- How do I split an Event into multiple Event Types?
- How do I split multiple values in a key into separate Events?
- Jira Cloud
- QuickBooks Time
- Finance & Accounting Analytics
- Amazon Ads
- Apple Search Ads
- Facebook Ads
- Facebook Page Insights
- Firebase Analytics
- Google Ads
- Google Analytics
- Google Analytics 4
- Google Analytics 360
- Google Play Console
- Google Search Console
- Instagram Business
- LinkedIn Ads
- Microsoft Ads
- Pinterest Ads
- SendGrid Webhook
- Salesforce Marketing Cloud
- Snapchat Ads
- TikTok Ads
- Twitter Ads
- YouTube Analytics
- Product Analytics
Sales & Support Analytics
- Help Scout
- Hub Planner
- Salesforce Bulk API V2
- Toggl Track
- From how far back can the Pipeline ingest data?
- Can I connect to a Source not listed in Hevo?
- Can I connect a local database as a Source?
- How can I push data to Hevo API?
- How do I connect a CSV file as a Source?
- Why are my selected Source objects not visible in the Schema Mapper?
- How does the Merge Table feature work?
- Familiarizing with the Destinations UI
- Amazon Aurora MySQL
- SQL Server
- Connecting to a Local Database
- Limitations of using MySQL as a Destination
- Structure of Data in the Amazon Redshift Data Warehouse
- Loading Data to an Amazon Redshift Data Warehouse
- Troubleshooting Amazon Redshift Destination
- Amazon Redshift FAQs
- Azure Synapse Analytics
- Clustering in BigQuery
- Partitioning in BigQuery
- Structure of Data in the Google BigQuery Data Warehouse
- Loading Data to a Google BigQuery Data Warehouse
- Near Real-time Data Loading using Streaming
- Troubleshooting Google BigQuery
- Google BigQuery FAQs
- Hevo Managed Google BigQuery
- Structure of Data in the Snowflake Data Warehouse
- Loading Data to a Snowflake Data Warehouse
- Troubleshooting Snowflake
- Snowflake FAQs
- Amazon Redshift
- Can I move data between SaaS applications using Hevo?
- Can I change the primary key in my Destination table?
- How do I change the data type of table columns?
- Can I change the Destination table name after creating the Pipeline?
- How can I change or delete the Destination table prefix?
- How do I resolve duplicate records in the Destination table?
- How do I enable or disable deduplication of records?
- Why does my Destination have deleted Source records?
- How do I filter deleted Events from the Destination?
- Does a data load regenerate deleted Hevo metadata columns?
- Can I load data to a specific Destination table?
- How do I filter out specific fields before loading data?
- How do I sort the data in the Destination?
- dbt™ Models
- Familiarizing with the Models UI
- Types of Models
- Key Features
- Working with SQL Models
- Previewing a Model
- Viewing the Query History
- Legacy Models
- Models FAQs
- Account Management
- Personal Settings
- Team Settings
- Pricing Plans
- Time-based Events Buffer
- Setting up Pricing Plans, Billing, and Payments
- On-Demand Purchases
- Billing Alerts
- Viewing Billing History
- Billing Notifications
- Can I get a plan apart from the Starter plan?
- Are free trial Events charged once I purchase a plan?
- For how long can I stay on the Free plan?
- How can I upgrade my plan?
- Is there a discount for non-profit organizations?
- Can I seek a refund of my payment?
- Do ingested Events count towards billing?
- Will Pipeline get paused if I exceed the Events quota?
- Will the initial load of data be free?
- Does the Hevo plan support multiple Destinations?
- Do rows loaded through Models count in my usage?
- Is Hevo subscription environment-specific?
- Can I pause billing if I have no active Pipelines?
- Can you explain the pricing plans in Hevo?
- Where do I get invoices for payments?
- Account Suspension and Restoration
- Account Management FAQs
- Activate Concepts
- Familiarizing with the Activate UI
- Working with Activate
- Activate Warehouses
- Activate Targets
- Release Notes
- Release Version 2.18
- Release Version 2.17
- Release Version 2.16
- Release Version 2.15
- Release Version 2.14
- Release Version 2.13
- Release Version 2.12
- Release Version 2.11
- Release Version 2.10
- Release Version 2.09
- Release Version 2.08
- Release Version 2.07
- Release Version 2.06
- Release Version 2.05
- Release Version 2.04
- Release Version 2.03
- Release Version 2.02
- Release Version 2.01
- Release Version 2.00
- Release Version 1.99
- Release Version 1.98
- Release Version 1.97
- Release Version 1.96
- Release Version 1.95
- Release Version 1.93 & 1.94
- Release Version 1.92
- Release Version 1.91
- Release Version 1.90
- Release Version 1.89
- Release Version 1.88
- Release Version 1.87
- Release Version 1.86
- Release Version 1.84 & 1.85
- Release Version 1.83
- Release Version 1.82
- Release Version 1.81
- Release Version 1.80 (Jan-24-2022)
- Release Version 1.79 (Jan-03-2022)
- Release Version 1.78 (Dec-20-2021)
- Release Version 1.77 (Dec-06-2021)
- Release Version 1.76 (Nov-22-2021)
- Release Version 1.75 (Nov-09-2021)
- Release Version 1.74 (Oct-25-2021)
- Release Version 1.73 (Oct-04-2021)
- Release Version 1.72 (Sep-20-2021)
- Release Version 1.71 (Sep-09-2021)
- Release Version 1.70 (Aug-23-2021)
- Release Version 1.69 (Aug-09-2021)
- Release Version 1.68 (Jul-26-2021)
- Release Version 1.67 (Jul-12-2021)
- Release Version 1.66 (Jun-28-2021)
- Release Version 1.65 (Jun-14-2021)
- Release Version 1.64 (Jun-01-2021)
- Release Version 1.63 (May-19-2021)
- Release Version 1.62 (May-05-2021)
- Release Version 1.61 (Apr-20-2021)
- Release Version 1.60 (Apr-06-2021)
- Release Version 1.59 (Mar-23-2021)
- Release Version 1.58 (Mar-09-2021)
- Release Version 1.57 (Feb-22-2021)
- Release Version 1.56 (Feb-09-2021)
- Release Version 1.55 (Jan-25-2021)
- Release Version 1.54 (Jan-12-2021)
- Release Version 1.53 (Dec-22-2020)
- Release Version 1.52 (Dec-03-2020)
- Release Version 1.51 (Nov-10-2020)
- Release Version 1.50 (Oct-19-2020)
- Release Version 1.49 (Sep-28-2020)
- Release Version 1.48 (Sep-01-2020)
- Release Version 1.47 (Aug-06-2020)
- Release Version 1.46 (Jul-21-2020)
- Release Version 1.45 (Jul-02-2020)
- Release Version 1.44 (Jun-11-2020)
- Release Version 1.43 (May-15-2020)
- Release Version 1.42 (Apr-30-2020)
- Release Version 1.41 (Apr-2020)
- Release Version 1.40 (Mar-2020)
- Release Version 1.39 (Feb-2020)
- Release Version 1.38 (Jan-2020)
- Upcoming Features
On This Page
- Set up Log-based Incremental Replication
- Whitelist Hevo’s IP Addresses
- Create a Database User and Grant Privileges
- Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings
- Object and Query Mode Settings
- Source Considerations
- Revision History
Starting Release 2.18.2, Hevo will stop supporting XMIN as a query mode for all variants of the PostgreSQL Source. As a result, you will not be able to create new Pipelines using this query mode. This change does not affect existing Pipelines. However, you will not be able to change the query mode to XMIN for any objects currently ingesting data using other query modes.
PostgreSQL is a highly stable database management system, used as the primary data store or data warehouse for many web, mobile, geospatial, and analytics applications. Generic PostgreSQL represents a self-hosted PostgreSQL server.
You can ingest data from your PostgreSQL database using Hevo Pipelines and replicate it to a Destination of your choice.
IP address or host name of your PostgreSQL server is available.
The PostgreSQL version is 9.5 or higher.
Log-based incremental replication is enabled if ingestion mode is Logical Replication.
Perform the following steps to configure your Generic PostgreSQL Source:
Set up Log-based Incremental Replication
Hevo supports data ingestion replication from PostgreSQL servers via Write Ahead Logs (WALs) set at the logical level (available on PostgreSQL version 9.4 and above).
A WAL is a collection of log files that record information about data modifications and data object modifications made on a PostgreSQL server instance. Typically, WAL is used for data replication and data recovery.
To configure logical replication, enable WAL on the self-hosted (generic) PostgreSQL server:
1. Update the client authentication file
Modify the PostgreSQL configuration file,
postgresql.conf, generally found in the
/etc/postgresql/\<version\>/main/ directory in the Linux system.
||Any whole number between 1 and 10||The number of clients that can connect to the server. Default value: 10.|
||10||The number of processes that can simultaneously transmit the WAL log. Default value: 10.|
||logical||The amount of information being written to the WAL log. For example, minimal, replica, or logical. Default value: replica. The value logical is required to enable log-based replication.|
||0||The time, in seconds, after which PostgreSQL terminates the replication connections due to inactivity. Default value: 60 seconds.
You must set the value to 0 so that the connections are never terminated and your Pipeline does not fail.
2. Update the PostgreSQL database configuration file
pg_hba.conf file, assign permission to the database user to connect from an external network to the PostgreSQL server:
local replication <user> peer host replication <user> 127.0.0.1/0 md5 host replication <user> ::1/0 md5
Note: Remember to replace <user> with your intended user.
3. Enable access to WALs
Once you have successfully completed the above steps, do the following:
Restart the PostgreSQL server.
Provide access to the WAL for the database user:
alter role <user> with replication; alter role <user> with login;
Note: Remember to replace <user> with your intended user.
Whitelist Hevo’s IP Addresses
You need to whitelist the Hevo IP addresses for your region to enable Hevo to connect to your PostgreSQL database. To do this:
Log in to the PostgreSQL server as a Superuser.
postgresql.conffile, add the Hevo IP addresses for your region or add
listen_addressesparameter to allow all IPs to connect.
Navigate to the PostgreSQL configuration file,
pg_hba.conf. This file is generally found in the path:
Add the Hevo IP addresses for your region or
0.0.0.0to allow all IPs to connect:
host all user_name 0.0.0.0/0 md5
Create a Database User and Grant Privileges
1. Create a database user (Optional)
Perform the following steps to create a user in your PostgreSQL database:
Connect to your PostgreSQL database as an admin user with an SQL client tool, such as psql.
Create a database user:
CREATE USER <username> PASSWORD '<password>';
Note: Replace the placeholder values in the command above with your own. For example, <username> with hevo.
2. Grant privileges to the user
Grant privileges to the database user connecting to the PostgreSQL database as follows:
Connect to your PostgreSQL database instance.
(Optional) View existing users and their privileges in your PostgreSQL instance:
psql -U postgres \du
If the privileges are not assigned, perform the next step. Else, proceed to Step 4.
Grant the required privileges to the user:
GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE <database_name> TO <database_username>; GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA <schema_name> TO <database_username>;
Alter the schema’s default privileges to grant
SELECTprivileges on tables to the database user:
ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES IN SCHEMA <schema_name> GRANT SELECT ON TABLES TO <database_username>;
Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings
In the Configure your PostgreSQL Source page, specify the following:
Pipeline Name: A unique name for your Pipeline, not exceeding 255 characters.
Database Host: The PostgreSQL host’s IP address or DNS. For example, 10.123.10.001 or postgresql.westeros.inc.
Note: For URL-based hostnames, exclude the
https://part. For example, if the hostname URL is https://postgres.database.westeros.inc, enter postgres.database.westeros.inc.
Database Port: The port on which your PostgreSQL server listens for connections. Default value: 5432.
Database User: The read-only user who has the permission to read tables in your database.
Database Password: The password for the read-only user.
Select an Ingestion Mode: The desired mode by which you want to ingest data from the Source. This section is expanded by default. However, you can collapse the section by clicking SEE LESS. Default value: Logical Replication.
Depending on the ingestion mode you select, you must configure the objects to be replicated. Refer to section, Object and Query Mode Settings for the steps to do this.
Note: For the Custom SQL ingestion mode, all Events loaded to the Destination are billable.
Database Name: The name of an existing database that you wish to replicate.
Schema Name (Optional): The schema in your database that holds the tables to be replicated. Default value: public.
Note: The Schema Name field is displayed only for Table and Custom SQL ingestion modes.
Connect through SSH: Enable this option to connect to Hevo using an SSH tunnel, instead of directly connecting your PostgreSQL database host to Hevo. This provides an additional level of security to your database by not exposing your PostgreSQL setup to the public. Read Connecting Through SSH.
If this option is turned off, you must whitelist Hevo’s IP addresses.
Use SSL: Enable this option to use an SSL-encrypted connection. Specify the following:
CA File: The file containing the SSL server certificate authority (CA).
Client Certificate: The client’s public key certificate file.
Client Key: The client’s private key file.
Load Historical Data: Applicable for Pipelines with Logical Replication mode.
If enabled, the entire table data is fetched during the first run of the Pipeline.
If disabled, Hevo loads only the data that was written in your database after the time of creation of the Pipeline.
Merge Tables: Applicable for Pipelines with Logical Replication mode.
If enabled, Hevo merges tables with the same name from different databases while loading the data to the warehouse. Hevo loads the Database Name field with each record.
If disabled, the database name is prefixed to each table name. Read How does the Merge Tables feature work?
Include New Tables in the Pipeline: Applicable for all ingestion modes except Custom SQL.
If enabled, Hevo automatically ingests data from tables created in the Source after the Pipeline has been built. These may include completely new tables or previously deleted tables that have been re-created in the Source.
If disabled, new and re-created tables are not ingested automatically. They are added in SKIPPED state in the objects list, in the Pipeline Overview page. You can include these objects post-Pipeline creation to ingest data.
You can change this setting later.
Click TEST CONNECTION. This button is enabled once you specify all the mandatory fields. Hevo’s underlying connectivity checker validates the connection settings you provide.
Click TEST & CONTINUE to proceed with setting up the Destination. This button is enabled once you specify all the mandatory fields.
Object and Query Mode Settings
Once you have specified the Source connection settings in Step 4 above, do one of the following:
For Pipelines with Table or Logical Replication mode:
In the Select Objects page, select the objects you want to replicate and click CONTINUE.
Note: Each object represents a table in your database.
In the Configure Objects page, specify the query mode you want to use for each selected object.
Note: Hevo selects XMIN as the default query mode for all PostgreSQL Sources.
For Pipelines with Custom SQL mode:
In the Provide Query Settings page, enter the custom SQL query to fetch data from the Source.
In the Query Mode drop-down, select the query mode, and click CONTINUE.
If you add a column with a default value to a table in PostgreSQL, entries with it are created in the WAL only for the rows that are added or updated after the column is added. As a result, in the case of log-based Pipelines, Hevo cannot capture the column value for the unchanged rows. To capture those values, you need to:
Restart the historical load for the respective object.
Run a query in the Destination to add the column and its value to all rows.
PostgreSQL does not support logical replication on read replicas. To enable log-based replication, you must select the primary database instance.
The data type Array in the Source is automatically mapped to Varchar at the Destination. No other mapping is currently supported.
If your Source data has indexes (indices) and constraints, you must recreate them in your Destination table, as Hevo does not replicate them from the Source. It only creates the existing primary keys.
Hevo does not set the
__hevo_marked_deletedfield to True for data deleted from the Source table using the TRUNCATE command. This could result in a data mismatch between the Source and Destination tables.
Refer to the following table for the list of key updates made to this page:
|Date||Release||Description of Change|
|Nov-03-2023||NA||Renamed section, Object Settings to Object and Query Mode Settings.|
|Oct-27-2023||NA||Added subsection, Create a database user.|
- Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings to describe the schema name displayed in Table and Custom SQL ingestion modes,
- Source Considerations to add information about logical replication not supported on read replicas, and
- Limitations to add limitations about data replicated by Hevo.
|Sep-19-2023||NA||Updated section, Limitations to add information about Hevo not supporting data replication from certain tables.|
|Jun-26-2023||NA||Added section, Source Considerations.|
|Apr-21-2023||NA||Updated section, Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings to add a note to inform users that all loaded Events are billable for Custom SQL mode-based Pipelines.|
|Mar-09-2023||2.09||Updated section, Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings to mention about SEE MORE in the Select an Ingestion Mode section.|
|Dec-19-2022||2.04||Updated section, Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings to add information that you must specify all fields to create a Pipeline.|
|Dec-07-2022||2.03||Updated section, Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings to mention about including skipped objects post-Pipeline creation.|
|Dec-07-2022||2.03||Updated section, Specify PostgreSQL Connection Settings to mention about the connectivity checker.|
|Jan-24-2022||1.80||Removed from Limitations that Hevo does not support UUID datatype as primary key.|
|Dec-20-2021||1.78||Updated section, Update the client authentication file.|
|Sep-09-2021||1.71||Updated the section, Limitations to include information about columns with the UUID data type not being supported as a primary key.|
|Jun-14-2021||1.65||Updated the Grant Privileges to the User section to include latest commands.|